Totto Hangon Canister Filters

Totto Hangon Canister Filters

February 14, 2017

Totto-filter("TOTTO") is a system that reproduces the purification process in nature using Long filter cylinders. It is a revolutionary filter that denitrifies water (removes nitrate) through the use of anaerobic bacteria (Japanese patent granted), eliminating the inconvenience of water changes, which is the main obstacle to the diffusion of the tropical fish hobby. TOTTO, which completely differs both functionally and structurally from products using anaerobic bacteria that have been developed until now(such as types where the bacteria are placed in gravel or a filtration layer),successfully achieves nitrification and denitrification within the filter. By avoiding the channeling effect that can be seen in conventional filters, totto succeeds in dramatically improving filtering efficiency.

Structure consisting of long tubular filter chambers linked together
The long tubular filter chambers containing the filter materials are linked to one another. There is no channeling effect because the water flows longitudinally in the narrow filter chambers, which dramatically increases the contact surface between the filter materials and the flowing water. The filter cylinders and all independent and the filter is configured so that each can be inserted as a cartridge that is filled with filter material, which makes it possible to freely combine several types of material to achieve the desired water quality.

The cartridges should be replaced periodically as shown in the following table.

If all the cartridges are replaced at the same time, this will remove all the good bacteria, so do not replace at one time more than 2 cartridges for Type M,3 cartridges for Type L, and 4 cartridges for Type LL.

Replacing filter cartridges

Periodically replace the filter cartridges according to our recommendations.Failure to replace the filter cartridges for a long time will result in reduced performance of your filter.
Dedicated filter materials for totto-filter

Test results after 420 days without a water change (Freshwater System)


Fundamental difference in anaerobic bacteria activity

The difference in nitrate change is particularly significant. (The unit of the nitrate graph of the comparison tank is quadruple that of the test tank.)
This indicates that there is virtually no anaerobic bacteria activity in the test tank. On the other hand, totto-filter achieves very efficient nitrate removal (denitrification).

18 fish still alive after 16 months without water changes

The fish in the comparison tank completely stopped eating from the 36th day and several began dying every day.Conditions were deemed unfit to support life on the 42nd day and the test was stopped. On the other hand, 18 of the fish in the tank using totto-filter stayed alive over a period of 16 months without a single water change.Moreover, they grew from larval fish into mature fish, a result that overturnswhat was common knowledge about filters until now.
*The collection of test data ended on the 420th day, and the fish continued to live on thereafter.

Test results for 361-day period without water changes (Saltwater System)

361 days without water change

Twelve fishes and eight shells were kept alive in a tank using totto-filter for a period of 12 months without a single water change. (Three damselfishes died due to the stress of the population mix, fights, etc., and were replaced). These results overturn what was common knowledge about filters until now.
*The collection of test data ended on the 361st day, and the fish continued to live on thereafter.

Denitrification through anaerobic bacteria

In conventional filters, the concentration of nitrate in the water gradually rises and the pH tends to become a acidic.As a result, such aquariums require a water change every 2 or 3 weeks. By contrast, totto-filter achieved a constant pH value from the 42nd day on, with almost no fluctuations thereafter. This proves that pH level stabilization and denitrification are achieved simultaneously and that the water is fully cleaned with this system.

How does it function?

TOTTO Filter at a Glance.

In this short article, we bring you through a detail and close up view of how the TOTTO filter works and what components it contains.



Role of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria

1st stage Nitrification performance far surpassing that conventional filters

Ammonia and nitrite, which are toxic to fish, occur in the water of the tank as the result of the decomposition of waste substances and excess food. These substances are converted by aerobic bacteria to nitrate (nitrification), which is comparatively less toxic.The above sums up the function of conventional filters. totto dramatically increases nitrification performance through its structure consisting of long filter cylinders (which causes the water to travel a longer time through the filter and eliminates the channeling effect).


What is the channeling effect?

Conventional filters receive water across a large surface. Due to its characteristics, water takes the path of least resistance, avoiding clogged areas and forming stable water channels. As a result, only the parts of the filter material crossed by water channels function effectively, and the remainder of the filter material dose not perform filtration at all. This is called the channeling effect. totto employs a structure that ensures 100% effective utilization of the filter material by avoiding the channeling effect.

2nd stage A nitrification performance that cannot be achieved with conventional filters

Conventional filters cannot eliminate nitrate, and the nitrate concentration gradually rises in the tank. While nitrate is comparatively less toxic to fish,exceeding a certain concentration causes the water to reach an acidity level that is toxic. As a result, periodic water changes are required. totto solves this problem by also hosting anaerobic bacteria that eliminate the nitrate. This removes the need for periodic water changes as long as an adequate living environment is maintained.

Anaerobic bacteria occurrence mechanism

The structure of the totto filter consists of long interconnected filter cylinders through which the water circulates. The first part, which is rich in oxygen, is the aerobic area.As described above***1, the aerobic bacteria in this area consume oxygen in the process of converting ammonia into nitrite, As a result, oxygen is extremely scarce in the last part of the filter, which makes it an anaerobic area. This part of the filter is supplied with totto-Bactofood, which feeds the anaerobic bacteria (anaerobic bacteria being heterotrophic bacteria that obtain energy from organic substances, they need to be fed organic nutrients in order to propagate ), thus ensuring a lot of anaerobic bacteria activity. Under anaerobic conditions where molecular oxygen hardly exists, nitrates are converted intonitrogen gas, which escapes into the atmosphere.

Advantages over conventional filters

The main difference with conventional filters that use anaerobic bacteria is that totto continuously circulates a constant amount of water in the anaerobic area. Products that bury the organic nutrients to ensure a thriving colony of anaerobic bacteria in gravel or within the filter layer achieve an anaerobic area by creating conditions that almost completely stop the flow of water in the gravel or filter layer, or else let only a very small quantity of water flow through. With this method, there is no way to know how much water actually flows through and it not possible to control the quantity of water; in other words,the creation of a thriving colony of anaerobic bacteria that will denitrify the water is left to luck and the result is a very unreliable filter. Moreover, if anaerobic bacteria become established in areas with no water flow, the denitrification process is also accompanied by emissions of toxic substances such as methane and hydrogen sulfide, which get trapped around the organic substances supplied for the buried anaerobic bacteria. As a result, minor changes in the tank environment such as during water changes can trigger the sudden release of large amounts of toxic substances, not infrequently causing the fish to die. By avoiding the channeling effect, totto dramatically increases the amount of oxygen consumed by aerobic bacteria in the first, aerobic, part of the filter, thereby facilitating the creation of an anaerobic area in the second part of the filter, which makes it a revolutionary product that clearly differs from conventional filters.This section explains how totto is a revolutionary filter not only because it eliminates the need for water changes, but also due to its user-friendly and practical design.

No need for priming water

Totto is designed so that air is automatically expelled when replacing filter materials, eliminating the need for priming water.

Ideal water quality for the fish

The fact that the filter consists of several filter cartridges makes it easy to adjust the water quality by selecting the best combination of filter materials.Totto currently offers six different types of filter materials including slightly acidic filter material (for freshwater fish), slightly basic water (for marine fish), and additional materials are being developed. This allows user to achieve the best water for their fish.


Partial replacement of the filter materials is possible

The filtering performance can be maintained without major fluctuations in the activity of established bacteria through the staggered replacement of filter materials. This ensures stable water quality.

Installation Advantages

-Totto is an external filter that attaches to the back of the tank, thereby preserving a beautiful appearance.  -�Totto does not cover the area over the tank, thereby allowing optimal lighting conditions for plants and corals.

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